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Samsun is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 725,111 as of 2007. It is the capital city of Samsun Province and an important port. Samsun was founded as the colony Amisos by settlers from Miletus in the 7th century BC.
Samsun's firstly name is Enete(from Hitits).Samsun's ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters has attracted numerous trade interests. Greek colonists settled in the 6th century BC and established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. At that time, Samsun was part of the Greek colony of Amisus. In the 3rd century BC, Samsun came under the expanded rule of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Kingdom of Pontus had been part of the empire of Alexander the Great. However, the empire was fractured soon after Alexander's death in the 4th century BC. At its height, the kingdom controlled the north of central Anatolia and mercantile towns on the northern Black Sea shores.
The Romans took over in 47 BC, and were replaced by the Byzantines after the fall of Rome. In 1200 Samsun was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the İlhanlılar. Samsun was incorporated into the network of Genoese trading posts and was taken by the Ottomans in the beginning of the 15th century. Before leaving, the Genoese razed the town.
Atatürk founded the Turkish republic movement at Samsun and it served as its base during the Turkish War of Independence.
Samsun is an important Turkish trade centre and the most important port on the Black Sea coast. Samsun is one of the major Turkish tobacco producing provinces. In the later Ottoman period the land around the town mainly produced tobacco. The town was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and tobacco trade boomed. A concern of automotive industries is located in Samsun.
Places to see
Kultur Sarayi (Palace of Culture). Concerts and other performances are held at the Kultur Sarayi, which is shaped much like a ski jump.
Archaeological and Atatürk Museum. The archaeological part of the museum displays ancient artifacts found in the Samsun area. The Atatürk section includes photographs of his life and some personal belongings. The museum is open from 8:30 till 12:00 and from 14:00 till 17:00.
The Russian Market (Rus Pazari).
Statue of Atatürk. By Austrian sculptor Heinz Kriphel, from 1928 to 1931. The statue was depicted on the obverse of the Turkish 100,000 lira banknotes of 1991-2001.
Atatürk (Gazi) Museum. It houses Atatürk's bedroom, his study and conference room as well some personal belongings.
Pazar Mosque, Samsun's oldest surviving building, a mosque built by the Ilhanid Mongols in the 13th century.
Karadağ Geçidi (Karadag Pass) (at an altitude of 940 metres). The landscape, on the way to Amasya.